Sunday, July 25, 2010

Cost Of The Wood Gun Boiler

Integrierte Optik

The Integrated optics (IO)

is that part of the optics that deals with the development of integrated optical systems . These systems are housed on a substrate and are characterized by a high functionality ( light sources , waveguide , beam splitter , intensity or phase modulators , filters, switches, etc.). Integrated optics is integrated circuits (IC) are comparable, but the integration density not as high as in the ICs.
Since the integrated optics is very interesting for communication systems and sensors, currently taking place here a lot of research and development to create new modules. It seeks to build all of an optical communication network necessary functions on an integrated optical circuit to accommodate in order to avoid having to use electrical signals.


Typical materials Integrated optics are glass, silicon , polymers (especially photopolymers ) and dielectric crystals, for example lithium . The latter interesting electro-optical , acoustooptic and nonlinear optical has properties. To produce this material optical circuits with specific functions, the crystal with Titan doped , edited with proton exchange process , or doped with elements from the group of rare earth . Amp

Micro-optical laser, and produce doping element

order laser active elements or optical amplifier, glasses or crystals with the elements from the group of rare earths (praseodymium , neodymium , erbium, thulium , ytterbium) doped.
is most interesting erbium, as they may generate erbium-doped crystals, glasses and optical fibers
infrared in the range of 1550 nm or strengthen a wavelength in the of silica glass ( quartz ) consisting of glass fibers attenuated very little is. This wavelength range is therefore primarily used in fiber optic networks the telecommunications .
be pumped Erbium-doped Lithiumniobatlaser and erbium-doped fiber amplifier with diode lasers with a wavelength of 980 nm or 1480nm. The chart at right shows the energy levels.
come as the radiation source in many cases semiconductor laser directly used. You can also operate at 1550 nm.

mixer and optical parametric oscillators

mixers, frequency multipliers and optical parametric oscillators ( OPO ) are used for frequency conversion to get out coherent light a frequency to generate coherent light at other frequencies. There are frequencies associated with the current laser sources can not be covered. through a nonlinear element can laser light in another frequency range, converted or Laser durchstimmbarer auch ein geschaffen werden.

Luis Fernando Cantor Well
Electronic Engineering, Solid State Electronics Section 2


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